Technology and cyber systems have become essential to modern society being a component of many activities that have become dependent on information technology. Along with the benefit of the cyber technologies, insecurities arise, affecting all systems and infrastructures. The cyber threat and cyber-attack have a transnational component and effect, as worldwide systems are interconnected. Furthermore, the complexity of the action has implications for various actors at national, regional and international level.
It is in this environment of cyber insecurity that civil aviation conducts its activity. Civil aviation is mainly reliant on cyber enabled technology which is used to increase safety and efficiency of air transport. However, interconnectivity of systems and dependency on technology created the optimum premises for new risks to emerge. The aviation industry is using a wide computer based interconnected system, spanning from air navigation systems, on-board aircraft control and communication systems, airport ground systems, flight information systems, security screening and many others that are used on a daily basis and for all aviation related operations. The tendency of the aviation industry is to become increasingly digitalized. Digitalization brings along new hazards as the interactions between people and systems make the risk harder to predict.
Acknowledging the urgency and importance of protecting civil aviation's critical infrastructure, information and communication technology systems and data against cyber threats, ICAO is committed to developing a solid cybersecurity framework. The 40th Session of the ICAO Assembly adopted Assembly Resolution A40-10 – Addressing Cybersecurity in Civil Aviation. The resolution addresses cybersecurity through a horizontal, cross-cutting and functional approach, reaffirming the importance and urgency of protecting civil aviation's critical infrastructure systems and data against cyber threats and calls upon States to implement the ICAO Cybersecurity Strategy.